----- Critically Important -----
Adobe has deemed that the Flash content on web pages is too risky to be used by the general internet user. For virtually all modern browsers, support for Flash was eliminated on 1-1-2021. This means that those browsers will not display any of the interactive Flash demos/calculators/graphics on this (or any other) site.
The simplest (not the best) fix, for now, is to download the Ruffle extension for your browser. It will render the Flash files where they were previously blocked. In some browsers, you will have to click on the big 'play' button to make the Flash applets/graphics visible.
An alternative to Ruffle for viewing Flash content is to use an alternative browser like the older, portable version of Chrome (chromium), an older version of Safari for Windows or one of several other browsers. More information on Flash capable browsers can be found HERE. It's not quite as simple as Ruffle but anyone even moderately familiar with the Windows Control Panel and installation of software can use Flash as it was intended.

For any type of work to be done, something has to move. For the blades of a windmill to move, air has to be forced through the blades. For a water sprinkler to spin around, water has to be forced through the mechanism. The same is true in electronics. For any work to be done, electrons must be forced through a device. The electron is the negatively charged part of the atom that orbits the nucleus of the atom. The nucleus of the atom contains neutrons, which have no electrical charge and protons, which have a positive charge. An atom, under normal conditions, will have the same number of electrons as protons. The electrons are contained in multiple shells. Each shell will contain a predetermined number of electrons. The electrons are tightly held in shells that contain its maximum number of electrons. If it takes 8 electrons to fill a shell but it has fewer than 8 electrons, the atom will let the electrons come and go with very little force. This is the reason that some elements will conduct easily (their outer valence shell is not full). Copper has a single electron in an outer shell that can hold as many as 32 electrons. When current flows through an electrical conductor, the electrons are the part of the atom that are moving through the conductor.

When you change/adjust the volume of your audio system, you change the rate of flow of electrons through the system. Later chapters will show you how it all works.

Copyright: Perry Babin 1999 - Present -- All rights reserved